Minggu, 15 April 2012

jenis-jenis text b.inggris




NARRATIVE
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged
RECOUNT
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
DESCRIPTIVE
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms
REPORT
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense
EXPLANATION
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition









HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
PROCEDURE
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms
DISCUSSION
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner
REVIEW
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor
ANECDOTE
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions
SPOOF
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged
NEWS ITEM
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.
//










1.Narrative Text

Disebutkan bahwa A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang). 
Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration. 
(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra, berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita)
Jika disimpulkan, maka sebuah narrative text adalah teks yang berisi sebuah cerita baik tertulis ataupun tidak tertulis dan terdapat rangkaian peristiwa yang saling terhubung.
Generic Structure dari Narrative Text  ini mempunyai struktur / susunan seperti di bawah ini :
Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana) 
Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)
Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, --- secara baik "happy ending" ataupun buruk "bad ending".
Kadangkala susunan (generic structure) narrative text bisa berisi: Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Meski “Evaluation” dan “Reorientation” merupakan optional; bisa ditambahkan dan bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.

Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text
Grammar (tata bahasa) yang sering muncul dalam membuat narrative text adalah:
Menggunakan tenses "Past", baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous.
contoh Narrative Text
Sincere Will Get a Great Return

Once upon a time, there was a kingdom named Auretto, all people lived peacefully there. One of them was Charlita, the king’s daughter who was assumed as the most beautiful and kindest Princess of Auretto.
 
One day, Charlita looked blue. Because of that her father got confused. “What’s the matter my beautiful daughter? Why are you so sad?” asked King Fernando. Charlita was just silent. She did not say anything.
 
Then, King Fernando decided to make a competition to cheer Charlita again. After that, the palace representative announce: “I will make a competition. The aim is to make my daughter, Princess Charlita to be happy and laugh again. Everyone who can do it, will get a prize. It will be held tomorrow when the sun rises. Sign: King Fernando.”
 
The following morning, everybody came to the palace, tried to give their best performance. They seemed happy and laugh, but not for Princess Charlita. She was just silent and still looked sad.
 
King Fernando started to give up. No one amused his daughter. Then, there came a young handsome man. “Excuse me King Fernando. I would like to join your competition. But, would you mind if I took Princess Charlita for a walk?” said the young man gently. “As long as you make my daughter be happy again, it will totally alright.” said King Fernando. The young handsome man took Princess Charlita for a walk in a beautiful blue lake with a green forest around it. Princess Charlita smiled and looked happy after that. Every body looked happy, too. “I know why are you so my beautiful daughter. Now, I promise I will environment green. I regret for always destroying it. Finally, the environment around the kingdom became so beautiful and green, full of plants. Then, the young handsome man got a prize from the king. “I will marry you off my daughter.” said him. “That is the prize I promise for you. Thanks for
keeping our environment well. Thanks for making my daughter happy again.”


2.RECOUNT
Secara harfiah, recount bermakna "menceritakan". Jadi recount text bisa diartikan sebagai "Text yang menceritakan". Jika mengacu pada keterangan di buku-buku sekolah (baca : Buku Bahasa Inggris SMP / SMA) recount text adalah a text that telling the reader about one story, action or activity. Its goal is to entertaining or informing the reader. (sebuah teks yang menceritakan sebuah cerita, aksi ataupun aktifitas. Tujuan recount text adalah untuk menghibur atau menginformasikan pembaca.)
Generic structure (susunan umum) recount text ini terdiri dari:
Orientation tells who was involved, what happened, where the events took place, and when it happened. ("Orientation" menceritakan siapa saja yang terlibat dalam cerita, apa yang terjadi, di mana tempat peristiwa terjadi, dan kapan terjadi peristiwanya)
Events tell what happened and in what sequence. ("Event" menceritakan apa yang terjadi (lagi) dan menceritakan urutan ceritanya)
Reorientation consists of optional-closure of events/ending. ("Reorientation" berisi penutup cerita / akhir cerita)

My Adolescence

I had my adolescence when I was thirteen.

It started with acne that showed up on my face. It was very annoying. It lowered my self-esteem and I was embarrassed to come out of my house and play with friends.
Fortunately, my Mum gave me a good medicine. In three weeks, the acnes started to vanish although those showed some black spots in my face.
That was my bad experience with adolescence, though there were still lots of good experience too.

Analisa :

Orientation : Paragraf pertama, (I had my adolescence when I was thirteen)
Events : Paragraf kedua dan ketiga.
Reorientation : Paragraf keempat (terakhir)
3.Descriptive Text
Dalam artian luas, Description, seperti dijelaskan oleh Kane (2000: 352), diartikan seperti pada kalimat di bawah ini :Description is about sensory experience—how something looks, sounds, tastes. Mostly it is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.Jadi, jika disimpulkan dari penjelasan Kane di atas, tulisan deskriptif bermakna teks yang menjelaskan tentang pengalaman yang berhubungan dengan pancaindera, seperti apa bentuknya, suaranya, rasanya. Kebanyakan teks deskriptif memang tentang pengalaman visual, tapi nyatanya pengalaman selain dari indera penglihatanpun bisa digunakan dalam descriptive text.
Namun secara khusus, descriptive text adalah, "...... is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing." [teks yang menjelaskan gambaran seseorang atau benda. Tujuannya adalah mengambarkan atau mengungkapkan orang, tempat atau benda tertentu]

Jadi, bisa dikatakan bahwa descriptive text ini adalah teks yang menjelaskan tentang seperti apakah orang atau suatu benda dideskripsikan, baik bentuknya, sifat-sifatnya, jumlahnya dan lain-lain. Tujuan (purpose) dari descriptive text pun jelas, yaitu untuk menjelaskan, MENGGAMBARKAN atau mengungkapkan seseorang atau suatu benda.
Generic Structure dalam Descriptive Text
Ketika menulis descriptive text, ada beberapa susunan umum / generic structure (sebenarnya tidak wajib) agar tulisan kita dianggap benar. Susunan tersebut adalah :
Identification : berisi tentang identifikasi hal / seorang yang akan dideskripsikan.
Description : berisi tentang penjelasan / penggambaran tentang hal / seseorang dengan menyebutkan beberapa sifatnya.
Ketika kita menulis descriptive text, hal yang wajib kita ketahui adalah cara kita menyampaikan deskripsi tulisan kita tersebut. Oleh karena itu pemahaman tentang adjective (kata sifat bahasa Inggris) wajib kita kuasai.
Selain adjective, beberapa struktur bahasa Inggris yang berfungsi sebagai adjective pun harus kita pahami agar penulisan descriptive text kita terlihat tidak kaku.
Contoh Descriptive Text
Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Ibu
My mother is a beautiful person. She is not tall but not short, and she has curly hair and brown. Her eyes color are like honey and her color skin color light brown, and she has a beautiful smile. Her weight likes 120 lbs.
She is a very kind person. She is very lovely, friendly, patient, and she loves to help people. I love my mom, because she is a good example to me. She loves being in the Church, and she loves sing and dance too.
She is a very good child, wife and mother. She always takes care of her family. She likes her house to be clean and organized. She a very organized person, and all things in the house are in the right place. She doesn't like messes.
She always has a smile on her face. She is so sweet and lovely. I like when I am going to sleep or went I wake up or when I am going to go to some places, she always give me a kiss, and when the family have a problem she always be with us to helps us and to give us all her love.





4.REPORT
Istilah report text sering juga dikenal dengan sebutan informational report. Report, dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary Edisi 10, diartikan sebagai 1) an account given of a matter after investigation or consideration. 2) a piece of information about an event or situation. Jika disimpulkan, secara bahasa report text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya investigasi dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan.
Definisi report text ini juga hampir mirip dengan apa yang sering disebutkan dalam berbagai buku bahasa Inggris di tingkat menengah, "Report is a text which present information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses." [Report adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal dengan apa adanya. Teks ini adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan analisa secara sistematis.]
Dengan demikian, sebenarnya teks report dan descriptive mempunyai perbedaan yang cukup jelas, meski nampak keduanya dikatakan sebagai "saudara kembar" sekalipun.
Intinya, dalam report text itu biasanya berisi dengan fakta-fakta yang bisa dibuktikan secara ilmiah, Oke..
Generic Structure Report Text.

Seperti halnya dengan descriptive text, Report text juga hanya memiliki dua struktur umum [generic structure] yaitu :
General Clasification; Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya. 
Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah.
Ada juga beberapa keterangan mengenai generic structure report text, yang meliputi :
1.General information
2.Bundles of Specific Information

General information adalah bagian yang menyebutkan informasi umum dari tema tulisan yang. Sedangkan Bundles of specific information, adalah penjabaran dari informasi umum tersebut.
Saya sendiri lebih cenderung setuju dengan generic structure kedua; karena hal ini bisa membuat siswa lebih paham akan cara menulis report text.

Tujuan Report Text
Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki tujuan mengapa tulisan itu ditulis. Begitu juga dengan report text. Beberapa pakar menyebutkan bahwa tujuan teks report adalah :
Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on. 
Jika disimpulkan, tujuan report text adalah untuk menyampaikan informasi hasil pengamatan dan analisa yang sistematis. Informasi yang dijelaskan dalam report text biasanya bersifat umum, baik itu alamiah ataupun buata seperti binatang mamalia, planet, bebatuan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, negara bagian, budaya, transportasi, dan lain sebagainya.
Keterangan :
General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup atau mati) yang bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs >< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat umum; sedangkan my dog bersifat khusus. 
Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking verbs. Seperti to be [is, am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain sebagainya. 
Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam simple present seperti "often, usually, always" dan lain-lain. 
Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi teks report tersebut. Misalnya tentang "music" maka, istilah-istilah musik harus ada
.Contoh Report Text : Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn. 

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are light
ed to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.












5.EXPLANATION
Tujuan Komunikatif Explanation Text.
Tujuan komunikatif dari Explanation text adalah untuk menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena-fenomena alam, sosial, ilmu pengetahuan, budaya, dan lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.
Generic Structur Explanation Text
Terdapat tiga bagian dalam struktur kalimat Explanation Text, yaitu:
1. A general statement
Dalam general statement berisi tentang penjelasan umum tentang fenomena yang akan dibahas, bisa berupa pengenalan fenomena tersebut atau penjelasannya.
2. A squenced of explanation
A squenced of explanation berisi tentang penjelasan proses mengapa fenomena tersebut bisa terjadi atau tercipta. A squenced of explanation berupa jawaban dari pertanyaan ‘why’ dan ‘how’ penulis ketika membuat sebuah Explanation text. Dalam squenced of explanation bisa terdiri lebih dari satu paragrap.
3. Closing
Sebenarnya closing itu tidak tercantum dalam generic structure dari Explanation text, tetapi kebanyakan orang beranggapan bahwa paragrap terakhir dari sebuah Explanation text adalah closing, padahal itu merupakan bagian dari squenced of explantaion yang berisi tentang langkah akhir yang dijelaskan pada bagian squenced of explanation.

contoh
The United States of America is where the Venus’s fly trap has its origins. The Venus’s fly trap is a unique plant. It belongs to a group of plants called ‘carnivorous plants’. These plants feed on insect. The Venus’s fly trap has a special mechanism by which it traps its prey. This is how it works.
At the end of each leaf – which grows from the base of a long, flowering stalk – there is a trap. The trap is made up of two lobes and is covered with short, reddish hairs which are sensitive. There are teeth like structures around the edge of the lobes.
The trap contains nectar which attracts insect. When an insect comes in contact with the nectar, the trap snaps shut. There are certain digestive juice inside the trap which digest the insect. It takes about ten days for a trapped insect to be digested. We can tell when this digestion is complete, for then the walls automatically open to wait for another victim.
There are two hundred species of carnivorous plants. Another kind of these well- known species is the pitcher plant. What differentiates this plant from the Venus’s fly trap is the shape; the mechanism to catch insects is the same in both plants.
The pitcher plants which cling to other plants by means of tendrils. At one end of the tendril, there is a pitcher –shaped vessel with an open lid. The mouth and the lid of the pitcher contain glands which produce nectar to attract insect. When an insect settles on the nectar, the lid of the pitcher shuts, trapping its victim. The digestive juices inside the pitcher then begin to work.
6.Analytical Exposition
Analytical Exposition adalah jenis teks yang termasuk keadalam jenis Argumentation Text dimana teks tersebut berisi tentang pemikiran terperinci penulis tentang sebuah penomena yang ada di sekitar. Fungsi sosial dari teks Analytical Exposition adalah untuk meyakinkan pembaca bahwa topik yang dihadirkan adalah topik yang penting untuk dibahas atau mendapat perhatian dengan cara pemberian argument-argument atau pendapat-pendapat yang mendukung main idea atau topik tersebut.

Generic Structure

Generic Structure teks Analytical Exposition terdiri dari tiga bagian yaitu:

1. Thesis
Dalam bagian Thesis, penulis mengenalkan tentang topik atau main idea yang akan dibahas. Thesis selalu berada di paragraph pertama dalam teks Analytical Exposition.

2. Argument
Dalam bagian ini penulis menghadirkan argumen-argumen atau pendapat-pendapat yang mendukung main idea penulis, biasanya dalam sebuah teks Analytical Exposition terdapat lebih dari dua argumen. Semakin banyak argumen yang ditampilkan semakin percaya pembaca bahwa topik yang dibahas oleh penulis adalah topik yang sangat penting atau membutuhkan perhatian.

3. Reiteration
Bagian ini merupakan bagian penutup dari sebuah teks Analytical Exposition yang selalu terletak di akhir paragraph. Reiteration berisi penulisan kembali atau penempatan kembali main idea yang terdapat di paragraph pertama. Reiteration juga biasa disebut dengan conclusion.

Language Features
Analytical Exposition 
sebuah Analytical Exposition Text, terdapat beberapa ciri-ciri kebahasaan seperti di bawah ini, yaitu:
Menggunakan simple present
Mengunakan reltional process
Menggunakan internal conjunction
Menggunakan casual conjuction
Contoh
Cars should be banned

Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.

Argument 1
Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribution to the most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illness such as bronchritis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.

Argument 2
secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrains in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.

Argument 3
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone.

Reiteration
in conclusion, cars should be benned from the city for the reason listed.





7.Hortatory Exposition

Disebutkan dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary, Hortatory termasuk kata sifat (adjective) bermakna "tending or aiming to exhort" ("cenderung atau bertujuan mendorong / mendesak orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu"). Sedangkan Exposition  bermakna "a comprehensive description and explanation of a theory" ("Penjelasan dan penjabaran sebuah teori secara komprehensif").

Jadi secara bahasa, jika disimpulkan, hortatory exposition adalah teks yang menjelaskan sebuah teori/masalah secara komprehensif dengan tujuan mendorong orang lain melakukan / tidak melakukan sesuatu.

GENERIC STRUCTURE OF HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Generic Structure, atau susunan umum hortatory exposition adalah sebagai berikut :

1.  Thesis / General Statement

Thesis / general statement berisi pernyataan pembuka mengenai topik pembahasan. Sebagai contoh kita akan membahas mengenai bahaya rokok, thesis statement yang bisa kita gunakan misalnya :

“Rokok dapat menyebabkan kanker, serangan jantung, dan impotensi”.

2.  Arguments

Arguments, ”Pendapat” berisi berbagai pembahasan lanjutan dari thesis statement secara detail. Akan lebih baik jika argument ini tidak hanya berisi pendapat pribadi penulis saja tapi juga bisa berisi pendapat para pakar. Mengacu pada contoh thesis statement tentang rokok di atas, kita bisa membuat arguments pendukung dengan lebih detail, misalnya :

Argument 1 : Saya mengira serangan jantung yang dialami direktur PT. LaptopButut, Pak “XXX”, disebabkan karena intensitas merokok lebih banyak dari pada minum air putih.(Terus kembangkan paragraf ini lebih dalam)

Argument 2 : Telah banyak dibuktikan bahwa rokok hampir menjadi sebab utama penyakit kanker. (Terus kembangkan paragraf ini)

Argument 3 : Impotensi seorang bos “XXX” di kota “XXX” disebutkan karena kebiasaanya merokok sebelum tidur. (terus kembangkan lagi paragraf ini)

3.  Recommendation.

Recommendation / suggestion berisi saran penulis tentang topik pembahasan. Jika membahas tentang bahaya rokok, sobat pasti tahu dong apa yang harus disarankan?
















8.Procedure text
Ada tiga definisi "umum" mengenai procedure text : (1)Texts that explain how something works or how to use instruction / operation manuals e.g. how to use the video, the computer, the tape recorder, the photocopier, the fax. (2) Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules. (3) Texts that deal with human behaviour eg how to live happily, how to succeed.

Dari keterangan di atas, dapat kita garis bawahi bahwa procedure text adalah (1) Teks yang menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu bekerja atau teks yang menjelaskan cara menggunakan pedoman instruksi / penggunaan. contoh : cara menggunakan video, komputer, mesin fotokopi, fax dll. (2) Teks yang menunjukan cara melakukan aktifitas tertentu. contoh : resep, aturan bermain game, eksperimen ilmiah, aturan keamanan berkendara. (3) Teks yang berhubungan dengan tingkah laku manusia. contoh : cara hidup bahagian, cara sukses. dll..

The purpose procedural text is to tell the reader how to do or make something. The information is presented in a logical sequence of events which is broken up into small sequenced steps. These texts are usually written in the present tense. The most common example of a procedural text is a recipe.

Tujuan procedure text adalah memberitahu pembaca cara melakukan / membuat sesuatu. Informasi disajikan dengan urutan peristiwa yang logis. Peristiwa tersebut biasanya dibagi menjadi beberapa langkah-langkah terpisah. Teks ini biasanya ditulis menggunakan present tense. Contoh paling umum procedure text adalah resep masakan.

GENERIC STRUCTURE OF PROCEDURE TEXT

Seperti halnya pengertian procedure text di atas, generic structure (susunan umum) procedure text juga ada tiga :
(1) Goal (Maksud atau tujuan)
(2) Material Needed (Materi / alat / bahan yang dibutuhkan)
(3) Methods or Steps (Metode / langkah-langkah)

Catatan : Pada procedure text yang berupa How-to ("Pokoknya berjudul how to"), kadang material needed (materi yang dibutuhkan) tidak disertakan. (aturan tidak wajib sih dan bisa diubah2 kok :)

CONTOH PROCEDURE TEXT - NASI GORENG "FRIED RICE"

Nasi goreng, "fried rice" is a familiar food from Indonesia; if you want to know how to prepare nasi goreng this is the procedure how to make nasi goreng. Just follow this explanation :

Ingredients :
350 gr. Long Grain Rice
2 Tbs. Vegetable Oil
3 Eggs
1 Onion
2 Green Chillis, Sambal Ulek or Sambal Badjak.
1 Garlic Clove
1 Leek
1 teaspoon Ground Coriander
1 teaspoon Ground Cumin
250 gr. Chicken meat
250 gr. Shelled Prawns
3 Tbs. Kecap Manis
Steps :
This dish is best made from cold leftover rice, but you can cook a fresh batch and leave it to cool for at least 4 hours. Beat the eggs and make into a omelette, slice into strips and set aside. Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the chopped onion, leek, garlic and chillis. Fry until the onion is soft. Add the Coriander and Cumin. Slice Chicken into strips and add with the prawns to the onion mixture and cook, stirring occasionally until they are well mixed. Add the rice, soya sauce and omelet strips and cook for a further 5 minutes.Decorate with some of the leftover leek and serve hot. Enjoy. 

9. DISSCUSION
Discussion text adalah jenis teks yang mempunyai fungsi sosial untuk menyampaikan beberapa sudut pandang berbeda terhadap suatu masalah. Sudut pandang dalam discussion text minimal terdiri dari dua pandangan berbeda. Namun tak menutup kemungkinan, bisa dari beragam pendapat.

tujuan komunikatif dari teks Discussion itu sendiri adalah unutk mengetengahkan suatu masalah atau issue yang ditinjau paling tidak dari dua sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.

Generic Sturcture
Dalam Discussion text, terdapat empat stuktur kalimat pada discussion text sebagai bahan pembentuk teksnya, yaitu:

1. Issue
Issue terletak di paragraph pertama yang berisi penempatan masalah atau issue yang akan didiskusikan.
2. Supporting Points
Dalam bagian ini, penulis menghadirkan pendapat yang mendukung issue. Di setiap paragraph supporting point terdiri dari dua komponen dianataranya adalah main idea dan elaborasi atau uraian dari main idea tersebut.
3.Contrasting Points
Dalam bagian ini, penulis menghadirakan pendapat yang menentang issue. Seperti dalam paragraph supportin point, contrasting points juga menghadirkan dua komponen pembentuk yaitu main idea dan elaborasi atau uraian ari main idea tersebut.
4. Conclunlusion or Recomendation
dalam bagian ini penulis menghadirakan kesimpulan atau juga bisa rekomendari dari issue yang telah didiskusikan.
Contoh
"Should we have printed advertisements?" There are many reasons for people to answer this question. Many people have strong views and feel that ads are nothing more than useless junk mail, while other people feel it is an important source of information. Here are some reasons why we should have advertisements in newspapers and magazines. One reason is ads give us information about what is available. Looking at ads we can find out what is on sale and what is new in the market. This is an easy way of shopping. another reason is that advertisement promote business. When shopkeepers compete against each other, they try to sell their goods as cheap as possible or attract buyers by offering discount. In this case buyers get the beneficial effects of this competition. They save their money. On the other hand, some people argue that ads should not be put in newspapers and magazines. Firstly, ads cost the shopkeepers a lot of money to print into paper. Besides, some people don't like finding junk mail in their letter boxes. People may also find that ads are not very interesting. Ads also influence people to buy items they don't need and can't really afford. Ads use up a lot of space and a lot of effort has to be made to make the ads eye-catching.









10.Review Text
Secara harfiah, review bermakna "tinjauan, ringkasan, tinjauan ulang." Jika ada frasa book review berarti bermakna tinjauan buku. Karenanya, review text bisa diartikan secara harfiah sebagai teks yang difungsikan untuk meninjau. Apa saja yang ditinjau? ya apa saja lah, baik buku, produk kecantikan, mobil, hp, laptop dan lain sebagainya.

Social Function Review Text

Ternyata review text bisa berfungsi sebagai to criticise an art work, event for a public audience. (untuk memberikan kritik terhadap suatu karya seni, ataupun lainnya untuk khalayak umum).

Generic Structure dari Review Text terdiri dari :
Orientation : places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through an analog with a non–art object or event. (menempatkan karya yang ditinjau pada konteks umum ataupun khusus, biasanya dengan membandingkan dengan karya lain yang sejenis atau melalui analogi obyek yang bukan karya seni.)
Interpretive Recount : summarize the plot and/or providers an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being.(meringkas alur cerita "jika mereview buku" bagaimana cara penyampaian karya tersebut)
Evaluation : provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usually recursive.(memberikan sebuah evaluari karya ataupun penampilan, produksi; evaluasi ini biasanya berulang-ulang)

Contoh Review Text  - A Book Review   
I particularly liked the first few pages of this book where the poet acknowledges those who have helped him and tells us something about his life. Too often writing is a lonely task and poetry so personal that it excludes others until they read the final result. But both poets and audiences are intimately involved in the process. Readers are not consumers looking for a pair of shoes, but people trying to discover something about how they feel, as well as understand the emotions of the person writing the poem. This spirit of openness and participation is right here from the start in this collection. 
Harold is one of nine children, raised by his mother. In the Introduction he tells us about public moments that have shaped his life (Martin Luther King’s ”I Have a Dream” speech, Muhammad Ali’s “I can float like a butterfly and sting like a bee.”) as well as very private ones like attending the wedding of a girl he was still very much in love with. This not only gives us an insight into the person behind these poems, it helps us understand their inspiration and connection to things outside of the words. “The Bee in the Web” draws on the “butterfly”/”bee” of Ali’s boast, yet expands on it to a message of racial harmony as opposed to one of militant aggression and separatism.

There are some great titles (“The Martian and the Wino,” “W Stands for Wrong", ”Fasten Your Seatbelt”) and lines that make us think (“Sometimes I feel that life’s a curse, has front-wheel drive and no reverse” and the very poignant “I hate in order to protect yourself—you pack a gun or mace. So why don’t I say what the hell and hate the human race.”) There are also some bad lines: “Her skin is cream, her body is slim. Looking at her makes the average saint sin.”—perhaps, but what or who is “the average saint”? The book ends with a sweet poem by Charla Angeline Hultmann (and I really like the candor of her bio) called “Gift” and “giving” is the real spirit of this book of poetry.

I will be honest, I am not a fan of rhyme. There is a delight in adjacent sounds rubbing together—vowels held and savored, consonants clicking in a row—but “easy” rhymes (“head”/“dead”; “love”/”dove”; “moon”/”prune”) tend to overshadow poetic subtleties, determine word choice and the words themselves lose their meaning, becoming clich├ęs. But this is the music of this poet’s generation, and there is no denying that poetry is more alive, more meaningful and more accessible than it has ever been at any other time during my life. PS I do love the “Osama” “mama” rhyme. In general I think it would benefit Harold Nash’s development to read more of the published contemporary Black poets.


But form aside, this is an honest (courageous and unflinching) look at life today—one we need to share together for the survival of us all. That is “Rhymes of the Times” message. And it is a good one.

11.Anecdote Text

Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote

1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.
Contoh
Snake in the Bathroom
How would you like to find a snake in you bath?
We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided that we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.
Suddenly to my horror, a snake's head appeared in the plug hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom.
Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she'd probably have lean over the bath to get a better look.
We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I've always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water




























12. SPOOF TEXT

Disebutkan dalam Cambridge Advance Learner's Dictionary Online, ada dua makna spoof. Pertama, sebagai kata benda, spoof bermakna, "a funny and silly piece of writing, music, theatre, etc. that copies the style of an original work". Sedang kedua, spoof sebagai kata kerja, bermakna, "to try to make someone believe in something that is not true, as a joke."
Dari kedua arti spoof di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengertian spoof text adalah sebuah teks yang berisi tentang humor meski sebagian teksnya sudah dimodifikasi dari aslinya.

GENERIC STRUCTURE OF SPOOF TEXT

Generic Structure (Susunan umum) dalam spoof text adalah :
Orientation, berisi pengenalan tokoh, latar, setting dll.
Events, berisi peristiwa atau kejadian
Twist, ending cerita (akhir cerita yang dianggap lucu, kadang tidak terduga)
Penjelasan mengenai orientation dan event sudah sering dibahas, khususnya pada pelajaran narrative text dan recount text. Dalam spoof text pun, orientation dan event tidak jauh berbeda dengan yang ada dalam narrative dan recount.
Sedang untuk twist, bagi seorang yang belum terbiasa menulis cerita lucu mungkin sangat sulit; untuk memahami twist saja sudah sulit, apalagi mengarang sendiri...

Ya, untuk memahami twist, kita membutuhkan selera humor tinggi hingga kita mampu mencerna apa dibalik kelucuan yang terkandung dalam twist ini. Sebab biasanya sangat sulit memperkirakan, "apa sih bagian lucunya?"


CONTOH SPOOF TEXT : SAM TING WONG

Jacky Wong got married with Lia Wong. Both of them had a white skin and straight hair. They are really a well-matched couple.
One year later, Wong family got a new baby. A nurse brought them a son with curly hair and a black skin.The nurse congratulated and said, "What name will you give to this son?"
With a confused face, Jacky Wong grumbled, "Sam Ting Wong!"





















13.News item

News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. (News item adalah teks yang memberikan informasi tentang kejadian / peristiwa harian. Peristiwa harian ini dianggap pantas dijadikan berita atau [bisa dibilang] penting)

Artinya, jika ada suatu peristiwa penting yang patut diketahui oleh banyak orang, maka peristiwa ini pantas dijadikan berita. Nah, teks berita itulah yang dinamakan dengan news item. Namun, jika ada peristiwa yang tidak pantas diketahui oleh orang banyak, maka peristiwa tersebut jelas tidak layak dijadikan berita.

Generic Structure of News Item

Ada tiga susunan umum dalam menulis news item, berikut adalah generic structure dari News item :
Main Events : Kejadian utama yang pantas dijadikan berita.
Elaboration : Penjelasan mengenai latar belakang adanya peristiwa tersebut; orang-orang yang terlibat dalam peristiwa tersebut; tempat peristiwa terjadi; dan lain-lain..
Resource of Information [Source] : Sumber berita; komentar para saksi; pendapat para ahli; dan lain-lain.
Untuk poin pertama, kejadian utama harus benar-benar pantas diberitakan. Jangan sampai ada hal ga penting dijadikan heboh karena masuk berita, nanti dianggap pembaca / penonton berita tidak menyukai berita tersebut. Misalnya: Pak Momod Pergi ke Pasar Membeli Beras.. waduh siapa tuh pak Momod.. :)

Ciri-Ciri News Item

Banyak sekali ciri umum news item text; ciri paling menonjol adalah bahasanya singkat padat dan tidak bertele-tele. Beberapa lagi diantaranya :
Sering menggunakan action verbs
Dominan menggunakan saying verbs
Banyak menggunakan adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner.

Contoh News Item
Pamekasan student wins math contest in Romania

Alyssa Diva Mustika, a student from Pamekasan Junior High School, East Java, won the gold medal at the International Mathematics Contest held in Romania between March 22 to 29, Antara news agency reported.

Speaking to journalists, Diva said she was glad that she had been able to win the competition, which she said had been very tight. “Thank God I won. I will study harder,” she said.

Indonesia sent 10 students to the competition in Romania. Diva is not the first Pamekasan student to win an international science competition. Oktavian Latief, a student from SMA Negeri 1 Pamekasan won gold at the International Physics Olympiad in 2006. Another student, Shohibul Maromi, won the same award in 2010.

“I thank Diva for giving a good name to Indonesia and Pamekasan on the international stage,” Pamekasan Regent Kholilurrahman said as quoted by Antara.

Analisis Contoh News Item di atas :

Paragraf Pertama : Main Events
Paragraf Kedua & Ketiga : Elaboration
Paragraf Keempat : Sources.


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